# Par, Premium, Discount Bonds

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We will illustrate the problem by the following example related to a premium bond. All investments are subject to risk and past performance is no guarantee of future results. Please see the Disclosures webpage for additional risk information atcommentary-disclosures. For the simple reason that many investors avoid them, and so dealers often offer these bonds at a slightly better price to sell them. Premium bonds tend to yield more than comparable issues selling at discounts. Advance your career in investment banking, private equity, FP&A, treasury, corporate development and other areas of corporate finance.

At the end of February 2021 only 11.8% of the bonds in the Standard & Poor’s Municipal Bonds Index had coupon rates of less than 4% but more than 0%. What’s the Difference Between Premium Bonds and Discount A bond selling at a premium is one that costs more than its face value, while a discount bond is one selling below face value. Usually, bonds with higher than current interest rates sell a a premium, while those with interest rates below prevailing rates sell at a discount. Figures 1 and 2 compare two hypothetical 10-year municipal bonds purchased at a 3.5% yield. One is a par bond with a 3.5% coupon and the other is a premium bond with a 5% coupon.

However, the chances of default for longer-term bonds might be higher, as a discount bond can indicate that the bond issuer might be in financial distress. Discount bonds can also indicate the expectation of issuer default, falling dividends, or a reluctance to buy on the part of the investors.

For example, if a bond with a $2000 face value and 10% coupon rate is trading at $2200, it is a premium bond. However, the bondholder will still get $200 interest, as mentioned in the bond contract. If a bond’s coupon rate is set higher than the expected rate of return, the demand for bond will be higher and it can be sold at a price higher than the par value. This constant fluctuation of interest rate and demand for bonds is what forms the secondary market—and how premium vs. discount bonds are born.

As demand for these older bonds rises, more of them can trade at a premium. When it comes to discount bonds, one kick in the pocketbook is that taxable zero coupon bonds still require you to pay taxes on the interest each year, even though you don’t collect it.

## Bond Discount Or Premium Amortization Business Accounting

Specifically, the IRS allows for a discount totaling 0.25 points per year based on the bond’s remaining time to maturity. The content on this website is intended for investment professionals and institutional asset owners.

Interest rate risk refers to the fact that bond prices fluctuate as interest rates change. Lower coupon and longer maturity bonds have a greater interest rate. The bond’s value is equal to the present value of the interest payments it generates, and of the repayment of principal. The discount rate is used to create a present value factor, which is applied to the payment of streams. For example, if a $100 bond is a zero-coupon, one-year bond paying 10 percent interest, the only payment made is the repayment of the $100 principal plus $10 in interest. Generally, the price of a zero-coupon bond is based on the present value of the amount the issuing business will pay the bondholder when the bond matures. The amount the company pays at the end of the term equals the bond’s face value.

If a company is performing well, its bonds will usually attract buying interest from investors. In the process, the bond’s price rises as investors are willing to pay more for the creditworthy bond from the financially viable issuer.

## Understanding Discount Bonds

Buying a bond at $1,050 that’s going to mature at $1,000 seems to make no sense. But keep in mind that this difference in price is made up for by the higher coupon in the case of the premium bond and the lower coupon in the case of the discount bond . Suppose you buy a discount bond because it looks cheap, but it is cheap because the issuer is in financial trouble.

AAM can provide you with detailed analysis of individual bond offerings, including a bond’s call features and duration as well as pricing and rating history. Yield to maturity is the overall interest rate earned by an investor who buys a bond at the market price and holds it until maturity.

In the United Kingdom, a premium bond is referred to as a lottery bond issued by the British government’s National Savings and Investment Scheme. It is important when completing the zero-coupon bond calculation to ensure the time period and term of the bond are expressed in similar terms. If the interest rate of the bond is expressed as a monthly rate and the term of the bond is 10 years, the bond term discount vs premium bond should be expressed as 120 months when making the calculation. While the business may not make periodic interest payments, interest income is still generated. The interest income is merely accumulated and paid at the end of the bond’s term. The amortization rate for the bond’s discount balance is calculated by dividing the discount amount by the number of periods the company has to pay interest.

## Bond Issue

It will continue to do so no matter how much the bond’s price changes in the market after it is issued. Just as with buying any other discounted products there is risk involved for the investor, but there are also some rewards. retained earnings Since the investor buys the investment at a discounted price it provides greater opportunity for greater capital gains. The investor must weigh this advantage against the disadvantage of paying taxes on those capital gains.

- However, unlike with a bond sold at a discount, the process of amortizing the premium will decrease the bond’s interest expense recorded on the issuing company’s financial records.
- To record interest expense, a business credits the bond discount account by the amortization rate and credits cash by the amount of money it pays in interest expense.
- Discount bonds can be bought and sold by both institutional and individual investors.
- Any bond trading above $1,000 per bond, or 100.00, is called a premium bond.
- Bond A has a cost of $100, meaning it trades at par, and pays a 2% coupon which is in line with current market interest rates.
- The best purchase will depend on how much interest the bond pays compared to the average market interest rate.

The investor holding the security paying 4% has a more attractive—premium—product. As a result, should the investor want to sell the 4% bond, it would sell at a premium higher than its $10,000 face value in the secondary market. A premium bond has a coupon rate higher than the prevailing interest rate for that bond maturity and credit quality. A discount Certified Public Accountant bond, in contrast, has a coupon rate lower than the prevailing interest rate for that bond maturity and credit quality. The investment landscape is full of confusing jargon, but one area that seems to baffle investors more than others is fixed income. In today’s interest rate environment, clients repeatedly ask questions relating to bond pricing.

## Discount Vs Premium Bonds

Bond yields and bond prices have an inverse, or opposite, relationship. As interest rates increase, the price of a bond will decrease, and vice versa. A bond that offers bondholders a lower interest or coupon rate than the current market interest rate would likely be sold at a lower price than its face value. This lower price is due to the opportunity investors have to buy a similar bond or other securities that give a better return. A bond currently trading for less than its par value in the secondary market is a discount bond.

## How To Convert Bond Price To Yield

For example, let’s say, interest rates rise after an investor purchases a bond. The higher interest rate in the economy decreases the value of the newly-purchased bond due to paying a lower rate versus the market. That means if our investor wants to sell the bond on the secondary market, they will have to offer it for a lower price. Should the prevailing market interest rates rise enough to push the price or value of a bond below its face value it’s referred to as a discount bond.

The other investors will “raise” the price of the bond until its yield at maturity is in line with the interest rate of the competing market of 3%. Therefore, a premium bond has a coupon rate higher than the prevailing interest rate for that particular maturity and credit quality.

## Coupon Rate Learn How Coupon Rate Affects Bond Pricing

Investors will “bid up” the price of your bond until its yield to maturity is in line with the competing market interest rate of 3%. Because of this bidding-up process, your bond will trade at a premium to its par value. Your buyer will pay more to purchase the bond, and the premium they pay will reduce the yield to maturity of the bond so that it is in line with what is currently being offered. On the other hand, a bond discount would enhance, rather than reduce, its yield to maturity. Bond prices are quoted differently than most securities with the bond “price” representing the percentage of par value (ex. $1,000 or $5,000). For example, if a bond’s price is 110 and par value is $1,000, the bond’s price would be $1,100 or a 110% of the par value. If it trades at 100, the bond trades at par, and if it trades under 100, it is a discount bond.

A company may opt to issue bonds after exhausting all other means of raising capital. A bond rating agency may also lower the rating of the issuer if it is convinced that the probability of the company defaulting on its current obligations has normal balance increased. If the coupon rate is higher than YTM, the bond’s price will be higher than its face value, reflecting that it is trading at a premium. Conversely, when YTM is equal to the coupon rate, the bond trading will be at its face value.

## Methods Of Bond Discount Or Premium Amortization

The redemption value at maturity is less for the premium bond and is more for the discount bond. The difference between the purchase price and the redemption price is a component of the bond’s yield.